QUALIFICATIONS OF A CHURCH MUSIC DIRECTOR
BY KENNETH W. OSBECK
If a church is to have an effective and total music program, it must first of all have a congregation, a church board, a pastor and music committee that are sympathetic and appreciative of the music ministry. Such a church then faces the often difficult task of finding the right type of leader to administer this program.
In some churches this person is known as the Music Director; in other churches, The Minister of Music. In some churches this work is done in combination with other forms of service such as: Assistant Pastor and Music Director; Youth Director and Music Director, or Parish Worker and Music Director. It is not too uncommon in many smaller churches for the pastor or his wife to lead these activities, in some cases the work is divided among several lay or part-time directors with the pastor or music committee responsible for overseeing the total program. It is vitally important, therefore, that anyone preparing for any form of Christian leadership have a basic knowledge of music and a vision of the total church music program.
A church music director must be qualified in three main areas: the spiritual, the personal, the musical. Each of these areas will be considered in this chapter.
There are churches that will engage a music director simply for his musical abilities, with little or no regard for his spiritual life. Basic, then, is the fact that any church music leader must first of all be a real Christian, one with a living relationship with God through a personal faith in the person and redemptive work of Jesus Christ. Such a person must have a life that is known and respected by all of his associates for its positive Christian witness.
Further, this type of Christian leader must have clearly defined convictions and goals that govern and color all of his work. He must feel as strongly called of God and as consecrated for this type of service as is the one who ministers the spoken Word. He must believe that his job is that of ministering spiritually to others, not that of displaying his own talents or of providing mere entertainment for people. He must have confidence in the fact that music does have a unique way of ministering to people’s spiritual needs when it is presented with the power of the Holy Spirit. A music director must also feel his work to be a sacred trust, realizing that music has as much potential for evil purposes when it is debased and the product of the flesh as it can have for good when it is Spirit directed.
Since human leadership is largely a matter of personality, the sum and substance of all that is in a person, a music director must consciously strive to develop a wholesome personality. His life should give evidence of an inner fortitude as well as the outgoing warmth of a mature, stable person. The spiritual standard of personality is found in Galatians 5:22, 23: “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.” Paramount traits of a Christian leader, then, are sincerity and humility. There is no place in Christian service for the musical leader who sets himself above the rest of the group, or for the one who desires the job simply for the authority he can exert over others. Further, a music director must thoroughly love people of all ages. He must develop a genuine friendship with each individual in his various groups. A director must learn to sensitize himself to each personality so that he can deal positively with it. This means that the director must have a fundamentally warm and sympathetic personality.
In brief, other traits that should characterize a Christian music leader are: a neat, well-groomed appearance; an enthusiastic attitude; organizational and promotional ability; aggressiveness; humor; persistence; tact; the ability to inspire others. In general, a music director’s entire personality, character, appearance, knowledge and poise must naturally command respect from those he leads. Needless to say, no one is imbued with all of these attributes. In fact, it must be admitted that there are few “natural born” music leaders. However, it is possible through study, application and the help of the Holy Spirit for one to develop the qualities essential for success as a director.
Not only must a music director learn to lead his own musical organizations, but he must also learn the art of working with and under other leaders in the church. He must learn that he cannot always expect to have his own way and must recognize that the church board, pastor and music committee represent higher authority. He must learn to work in harmony with these people despite “how wrong’ they might be. It is a tragic fact that there has been a great deal of church difficulty simply because leaders (and music directors in particular) have never learned what it means to compromise if need be on personal differences in order to maintain a spirit of unity in the work of the Lord. It has well been said that the test of a good leader is not how strongly he can push his plans forward, but how effectively he can accomplish his purposes and still retain the co-operation and support of his associates.
Assuming that a person has the necessary innate musical ability, there are still various musical areas in which he will need development and training. A director must have a factual and thorough grasp of the fundamentals of music used in the system of notation. This would include a knowledge of the following:
1. Position and names of the notes on the staffs:
2. Note values and their relationships:
A dot after a note adds one-half of the time value of the note follows.
3. Time Signatures:
a. The top number states the number of beats to a measure.
b. The bottom number identifies the kind of note that gets a beat:
c. Compound Rhythms when the top number of the time signature is either 6, 9, or 12, the music may be performed in one of two ways: Either in the total number of beats as indicated by the top number generally for a slow song, or in a more “lilting” rhythm achieved by singing the notes indicated by the bottom number in groups of threes.
d. Miscellaneous Rhythmic Information: The first beat of a measure is the strong or accented beat.
4. Key Signatures as indicated by the number of sharps or flats after the clef sign.
a. A sharp raises a note 1/2 step. A double sharp raises a note a whole step.
b. A flat lowers a note 1/2 step. A double flat lowers a note a whole step.
c. A natural destroys the previous effect of either a flat or sharp for the remainder of that measure.
d. These key signature names refer to songs that have a major sound. When a song has one of these signatures but has a minor sound, it is said to be the related minor key of that particular key signature. The minor key is always pitched 1 1/2 steps lower than its major key signature. Example–the key of a minor has no flats or sharps and is 1 1/2 steps lower than the key of c.
In addition to a factual grasp of the fundamentals of music, a director should have a strong rhythmic sense, the ability to maintain a definite, steady beat, as well as the ability to sing any rhythmic pattern quickly and accurately. A director must also develop the ability to sight read any voice part easily. A director needs an infallible musical ear so that he is keenly sensitive to pitch. This musical ear should also help him to hear music mentally. For all of these developments a working knowledge of the piano is almost a necessity for any music director. A director must develop an awareness of the emotional meanings and moods of texts, as well as a realization of the union or lack of union between the music and the text. A director’s creative abilities need to be challenged and developed. When examining a printed page of music, a good director is able to foresee the possibility of transforming mere notes and words into messages of beauty and blessing. He has to have imagination and creative ability for planning special programs, devising ways of maintaining interest in his groups, and, if at all possible, the ability to make his own musical arrangements and compositions when necessary. A music director should have a knowledge of the terms and expressions frequently used in music. A music director should also have an appreciation and understanding of the term “style” in music–a realization that each song must be interpreted in the manner that is appropriate for that number. This would imply a basic acquaintance with music history and literature, as well as with the study of hymnology.
A church music director must be trained in spiritual and musical discernment for choosing appropriate music for each type of service or program. For example, music that is suitable for an evangelistic or gospel service is generally not suited for a worship service. Music that is suited for a youth or Sunday school meeting is quite likely inappropriate for the prayer service, etc.
B. Different Types of Sacred Song. A music director should, then, be acquainted with the main types of sacred literature and should have discernment in the proper usage of each. It should be added, however, that the final criterion for the choice of any number in an evangelical church should always be that the song to be used is one that best presents a particular truth of the gospel message in the most effective manner to the greatest number of people. The following are brief descriptions of the different types of sacred music:
1. Hymns. Expressions of praise, adoration, worship, confession, vows of service, etc., that are addressed to God with a sense of reverence and dignity to the music as well as to the words. These songs are essentially objective or God-centered in character. They are best used for worship services.
2. Gospel Songs or Gospel Hymns. Musical expressions that speak of one’s personal experience with the Lord; or that are spiritual exhortations to other Christians; or that present an invitation to the non-Christian to accept Christ as Saviour. The words are essentially subjective or man-centered in character. The music, too, has more rhythmic emphasis than does the hymn. These songs are excellent for evangelistic meetings or for devotional purposes.
3. Hymn or Gospel Song Arrangements. Familiar hymns or gospel songs especially arranged with some form of musical variation to make for greater listening interest and to enhance the meaning of the words. These songs can be used by a choir for either worship or evangelistic services, depending on the character of the song and the type of arrangement.
4. Choruses. Short, direct, gospel truths generally set to lyrical tunes and emphasized rhythms. These songs are best used for gospel meetings, youth meetings, and Sunday school services.
5. Anthems. More complex choral compositions with texts taken quite directly from the Scriptures. These songs generally employ considerable repetition, which is done for the purpose of achieving emphasis. These songs are excellent for a choir to use for a worship service.
6. Chorales. Stately hymns that began with the time of Martin Luther and the Reformation. Examples: “A Mighty Fortress”; “Doxology.” These songs are best used for a worship service.
7. Psalms. Words either taken directly or paraphrased from the Book of Psalms and set to stately music. These songs are best used for a worship service.
8. Motets. Lengthy, complex choral compositions written in a contrapuntal style (each voice part an independent melody in itself). These songs are best used for special programs or concerts.
9. Oratorios. Lengthy, dramatic compositions for solo voices and choir, with orchestral accompaniment if possible (otherwise organ). These works depict Biblical stories or scenes without employing acting or scenery. Examples: The Messiah, The Elijah, The Creation, St. Paul, etc. These are works that a choir can perform for special occasions. It is also possible to use individual numbers from these works for regular worship services.
10. Cantata. A shorter form of oratorio, consisting of various movements such as solos, duets, choir, etc., all of which are based on a continuous narrative text. This music is especially good for a choir to perform at special seasons of the year, such as Christmas and Easter.
From these available sources, a music director should try as often as possible to choose appropriate music that complements a pastor’s message or a special emphasis a church may have for a particular service. Most churches have periodic services with such emphasis as: special holidays, missionary endeavors, dedicatory services, communion services, Reformation Day services, Christian Education Day, etc. Some churches follow more closely the plan of the church calendar, which is the organization of the events of Christ’s life into a yearly schedule. This church year calendar plan is as follows:
Advent–begins the fourth Sunday preceding Christmas Eve. The emphasis is the Messianic prophecies concerning the birth of Christ. The church color for this season is purple.
Christmas Time–begins with Christmas Eve and extends for twelve nights to January fifth. The emphasis is on the birth of Christ. The church color for this season is white.
Epiphany–this period begins with January sixth and extends to Ash Wednesday, or the Wednesday before the sixth Sunday preceding Easter. The emphasis is that of the Christ Child being revealed to the wise men and is symbolic of the revealing of Himself to all Gentiles as the Light of the world. Usually this period is ushered in with a special week of prayer. It is also a time for a church missionary emphasis. The church color for this season is green.
Lent–begins with Ash Wednesday and includes forty weekdays and six Sundays preceding Easter. The emphasis is that of spiritual self-examination and rededicated living. The church color for this season is purple. The church color for the Good Friday service is black.
Eastertide–begins with Easter Sunday and extends for fifty days, including Ascension Day, and for seven Sundays, ending with Whitsunday or the Day of Pentecost. The church color for this season is white.
Whitsuntide–begins fifty days after Easter and emphasizes the advent of the Holy Spirit. The Sunday after Whitsunday is known as Trinity Sunday. This entire period, ranging from eleven to sixteen weeks, ends with the last Sunday in August. The church color for this season is red.
Kingdomtide–begins with the first Sunday in September and extends to the time of Advent. Its emphasis is that of the total work of the organized church of God on this earth. There is no particular church color for this season, although green is most generally used.
Techniques. Another most important musical area in which a music director must seek to develop himself is in his techniques of conducting. This means first of all a mastery of the conventional conducting patterns.
Although the right hand is the main hand for conducting the pattern and keeping rhythm, a director must also learn to do this with his left hand as well.
The poise and posture of the director are especially important. The suggestion is generally given for beginning directors to clench the fists and to allow the arms to hang naturally at one’s side. The arms should then be brought straight up and bent at the elbows and the fists easily opened and relaxed so that the palms are facing the floor and the fingers curved in a graceful manner. It has well been said that a conductor’s hands reveal his personality, his sensitiveness to the song, and his command of the situation. Each director must also find that position on the forward part of his feet that makes for maximum ease and gracefulness of his bodily movements.
Before beginning any song, a director must first of all have the hand positions and facial expressions that are necessary to bang his group to keen attention. This anticipatory position must then be followed by a preparatory or breathing motion given in the same tempo of the song to follow. If either the anticipation movement or the preparatory beat is poor, a director can invariably expect a poor attack from his group. Once the group is started and singing, the director’s pattern must be maintained with such subconsciousness that he can devote his main attention to his singers, helping them with such matters as catching the proper mood of the song, entrances, releases, shadings, and the other interpretative demands of the music.
The mood and interpretative demands of a song also determine the size or extent of the arm movements that a conductor uses in directing a song. For example, a song requiring bigness and grandeur would be conducted with the largest unit a director has at his disposal, the arm to the fingers acting as one total unit. A song that is moderate in tempo and smooth in character would be directed primarily from the elbow to the fingers. A song that is fast and light or has a staccato movement would be directed primarily from just the wrist to the fingers. It should be emphasized, moreover, that a director’s entire being–facial expressions, muscular tensions, as well as the arm and hand movements–all must combine as a total force in making the desired effects obvious to each singer. It should be noted that in all of one’s directing there must be a sense of gracefulness, naturalness and control over bodily movements. The task of each director in developing his conducting technique, therefore, is to eliminate every mannerism that detracts from his effectiveness and to learn to make even the slightest movement as meaningful as possible. The mark of a good conductor is that he can achieve maximum results with minimum effort.
Another phase of conducting technique that needs special development is the indication of clear attacks and voice part cues. As mentioned previously, good attacks are dependent upon: (1) establishing the proper mental attitude for singing, (2) getting the group’s keen attention before ever attempting any singing, (3) giving a good preparatory beat or motion in the exact tempo of the song that makes the group imitate the director’s own breathing preparation, and (4) a clear, definite beat for the attack. When the song begins on the first or down-beat of a measure, the preparatory beat should be an upward motion similar to the upbeat motion in a conducting pattern. When the song begins on the upbeat, the preparatory beat should be an outward motion similar to the position given the third beat in a four beat pattern. If a song should begin on a beat other than the first or last beats of a measure, the preparatory beat should be similar to that used if the song were starting on the down-beat, with the attack beginning right on the beat of the pattern for which the song begins. For example, the song “Finlandia” or the hymn “Be Still, My Soul,” adapted from it, begins on the second beat of a four beat measure. The preparatory beat for this song will be the same as though it were starting on a down-beat, with the conductor’s attack beginning right on the second beat and the regular four beat pattern then continued throughout the song.
When a song begins on the last half or the “and” of any beat, the preparatory motion should be given where the main stress of that beat is normally placed, with the “and” attack indicated with a strong, outward wrist movement. For example, the song “In My Heart There Rings a Melody” starts on the last half of the third beat in a four beat measure song. In this case the preparatory beat would be given on the third beat with the actual attack for the “and” indicated with a strong flick of the wrist movement. The regular four beat pattern would then continue throughout the song.
Cues for various part entrances within a song are also indicated with a flexible wrist action. Proper wrist action, then, is important to any director both in his directing as well as in cueing. It should be cautioned, however, that wrists should never become “floppy” in one’s conducting. Although the wrists should never be stiff, yet they must have relaxed tension in order to indicate command. When a voice part entrance is on the main part of any beat, the indication should be given with a downward flick of the wrist. When the entrance is on the “and” of any beat, the indication should be that of an upward flick of the wrist. Again it should be stressed that voice part cues must have a preparatory motion given in the tempo of the song whereby the singers are able to anticipate the actual flick of the wrist. In addition to the cueing motion, a director must also look at the part he is cueing. Normally voice part cueing is done with the left hand. However, when this becomes difficult or awkward, it is often necessary to cue with the right hand as well.
Conducting techniques are basically the same for either congregational singing or choir directing. However, in congregational singing the emphasis is on getting quantity of tone and spontaneous interpretation. In choir directing, the emphasis is on quality of tone and interpretation that includes precision and more subtlety. Consequently, in congregational singing the movements are much bigger and broader, with both hands often duplicating each other for the sake of emphasis. Here the director’s main concern is in setting appropriate tempos and in keeping the congregation rhythmically together on each word. In choir directing, each hand has individual importance. The right hand is primarily the rhythm or pattern hand while the left hand is used especially for interpretation and cueing. For indicating crescendos, the open palm of the left hand would normally be used while the down palm would be used for indicating decrescendos. However, it should be stressed that a director must learn to direct, cue and get desired musical effects with either hand.
D. Other Conducting Patterns. Occasionally a director encounters music with time signatures that require different conducting patterns.
E. Divided and Collected Beats. There is still another phase of conducting technique to which a director must give attention. This is the use of divided and collected beats. The use of either is dependent upon the tempo of a song. For a song that moves slowly, it is impossible to control a group using the regular conducting patterns. For example, a song that has four beats to a measure but moves in a slow tempo would have to be subdivided in order to maintain rhythmic control. Generally, most directors use the emphasized wrist action to divide a beat. However, the choice of either method for dividing a beat will depend to a large extent upon the amount of stress and the type of pulsations within the song.
Collected beats are used for rhythms that move too rapidly to use the regular beat patterns. For example, a three beat song that moves too rapidly to direct in the regular three beat pattern should be conducted with just one beat to a measure. A four beat song that moves too rapidly to make the regular four beat pattern possible should be directed with a two beat pattern (“cut-time”). A six beat song that moves rapidly would be conducted with a two beat pattern, thus giving three secondary pulsations to each main beat. Example–“Showers of Blessing.” A nine beat song that moves rapidly would be conducted with a three beat pattern. Example–“Blessed Assurance.” A twelve beat song that moves rapidly would be conducted with a four beat pattern. Examples–“Saved, Saved”; “More Holiness Give Me.” For the purpose of getting a greater emphasis on particular words or to achieve a more definite climax, a director may change from the collected beat idea to that of directing and emphasizing each individual beat. When a tempo is between 60 to 120 pulsations per minute, the regular conducting patterns can be used. When the tempo is less than 60 pulsations per minute, a director should use the divided beat patterns. When the tempo is more than 120 pulsations per minute, the collected beat idea should be used. A director can determine a 60 tempo from either a metronome, the second hand on his watch, or by saying the word “MISSISSIPPI” at a moderate rate. Naturally, a 120 tempo would be just twice this fast, etc.
F. An Understanding of Voices. It has well been said that the human voice is the choicest of all musical instruments, with all other instruments mere imitations of the voice. Since church music is primarily vocal, it is important that a church music director learn all that he can about voice culture.
First of all, a director should know the vocal ranges that are average for each voice part. These are shown as follows:
The range of a voice is generally defined as the highest pure and lowest pure tones that are singable by a particular voice. However, a director must understand not only the range factor in working with voices, but he must also be conscious of the quality, color or timbre of each voice as well. Voices are further classified according to vocal quality as follows: Sopranos
1. Coloratura–a bright, light quality, capable of singing in very high ranges.
2. Lyric–a pure, smooth quality.
3. Dramatic–a full, heavier quality.
4. Mezzo–fullness which approaches a contralto’s quality, especially in the mezzo’s middle range.
1. Lyric or high altos–a pure, smooth quality.
2. Contraltos–a full, heavy, resonant quality, especially in the lower register.
1. Lyric–a pure, high, light quality.
2. Dramatic–a fuller, heavier quality. Basses
1. Baritones–a voice with a wide, colorful range.
2. Bass-baritone–rich, firm low tones not characteristic of a baritone.
3. Bass or Bass Profundo–a heavy, resonant quality, capable of singing tones in the contra-bass range.
A church music director should learn, then, how to work with and develop all types of voices. This would include giving singers tone and vowel consciousness, diction techniques, a uniform, resonant quality throughout their entire range, a keen awareness of pitch and intonation, as well as the underlying principles of effective interpretation. A music director must first, however, experience these concepts himself under the guidance of a capable voice teacher before he can expect to impart these same ideals to others.
It must be the constant desire of a church music director to improve his talents and techniques. Reading periodicals and books on various aspects of music, attending workshops and music clinics, as well as sharing ideas with other directors are all helpful aids in one’s musical development. Membership in one or more professional organizations is also an invaluable help in this regard. Several of these organizations include:
American Guild of English Handbell Ringers
100 W. Tenth St., Wilmington, Delaware 19899
American Guild of Organists
630 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10020
P.O. Box 1984, Thousand Oaks, California 913B0
The Choristers’ Guild
440 N. Lake Center, Dallas, Texas 75238
The Hymn Society of America
c/o Texas Christian University
Ed Landreth Hall
2900 So. University Dr., Fort Worth, Texas 76129
G. List of Musc Publshers One of the difficult jobs of any church music director is finding a continuous supply of new and suitable music. A working relationship with the various music publishing houses can be of real help in this regard. It is suggested when ordering music from any publisher that a director list the name of the song, composer or arranger or editor, the publisher’s order number, the voice parts (SATB, SAB, SSA, TTBB, SA, etc.) and the number of copies desired. Upon request, publishers will send a catalogue to a music director and will usually send a sample copy of the music on approval as well. The following list of music publishers is given for reference:
P.O. Box 300
Alexandria, IN 46001
Associated Music Publ., Inc.
866 Third Ave.
New York, NY 10022
Augsburg Publ. House
426 South 5th Street
Minneapolis, MN 55415
Belwin-Mills Publ. Corp.
25 Deshon Drive
Melvile, NY 11746
Benson, John T. Publ. Co.
Nashville, TN 37202
Big Three Music Corp.
Meadow Lands Ave.
Lyndhurst, NJ 07071
P.O. Box 130
Oceanside, NY 11572
Boston Music Co.
116 Boylston St.
Boston, MA 02116
866 Thurd Ave.
New York, NY 10022
127 N. 9th Ave.
Nashville, TN 37203
251 W. 19th St.
New York, NY 10011
Concordia Publ. House
3558 S. Jefferson Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63118
Crescendo Music Publ., Inc.
2580 Gus Thomasson Rd.
P.O. Box 28218
Dallas, TX 75228
Elkan-Vogel Co., Inc.
Bryn Mawr, PA 19010
Fischer, Carl, Inc.
56-62 Cooper Square
New York, NY 10003
Fischer and Bro., J.
(order from Belwin-Mills Co.)
Sam Fox Publ. Co.
170 N.E. 33rd St.
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33334
Gaither Music Co.
(order from Alexandria House)
Galaxy Music Corp.
112 South St.
Boston, MA 02111
Good Life Productions
7901 E. Pierce St.
Scottsdale, AZ S5257
Gospel Publ. House
1445 Booneville Ave.
Springfield, MO 65802
Gray Co., Inc. H.W.
(order from Belwin-Millls Co.)
Hinshaw Music Press
Dayton, OH 45401
Hope Publishing Co.
Carol Stream, IL 60187
Kendor Music, Inc.
Delevan, NY 14042
Kjos Music Co., Neil
4382 Jutland Dr.
San Diego, CA 92117
Lexicon Music Co.
P.O. Box 2222
Newbury Park, CA 91320
Lillenas Publ. Co.
Kansas City, KS 64141
Lorenz Publ. Co.
501 E. Third St.
Dayton, OH 45401
Ludwig Music Co.
557-59 E. 140th St.
Cleveland, OH 44110
Manna Music Co.
2111 Kenmere Ave.
Burbank, CA 91504
Morris, Edwin H. and Co.
729 Seventh Ave.
New York, NY 10019
P.O. Box 5378
Greenville, SC 29606
Peters, C. F. Corp
373 Park Ave. South
New York, NY 10016
Presser, Theodore, Co.
Bryn Mawr, PA 19010
Pro Art Music Publishers
469 Union Ave.
Westbury, Long Island, NY 11591
G. Ricordi and Co.
866 Third Ave.
New York, NY 10022
RobinSong Publ. Co.
4309 Idylwild Terrace
Marshall, TX 75670
E. C. Schirmer Music Co.
112 South St.
Boston, MA 02111
G. Schirmer Co.
866 Third Ave.
Westbury, Long Island, NY 10022
Shawnee Press, Inc.
Delaware Water Gap, PA 18327
315 Richard Terrace S.E.
Grand Rapids, MI 49506
Southern Music Publ. Co.
1100 Broadway, Box 329
San Antonio, TX 78206
Sparrow/Birdwing Music Co.
8025 Deering Ave.
Canoga Park, CA 91304
Box CN 27
Princeton, NJ 08540
Tempo Music Publ.
2712 W. 104th Terr.
Leawood, KS 66206
Triune Music Co.
P.O. Box 23088
824 19th Ave. S.
Nashville, TN 3720a
Volkwein Brothers, Inc.
117 Sandusky St.
Pittsburgh, PA 15212
Willis Music Co.
7380 Industrial Rd.
Florence, KY 41042
Waco, TX 76703
1. Discuss what you consider to be the most important qualifications for a church music director.
2. Express in your own words the basic differences between a hymn and a gospel song.
3. Choose ten appropriate songs for each of the following services in the church: a. Sunday evening gospel service b. Sunday morning worship service c. Midweek prayer service d. Sunday school exercises c. Young people’s meeting
4. Discuss all that is involved in developing a good conducting technique. Point out the differences between congregational song leading and choral directing.
5. State the conducting pattern that you would use for each of the following songs:
a. “Nothing But the Blood”
b. “The Solid Rock”
c. “The Old Rugged Cross”
d. “There Shall Be Showers of Blessing”
e. “Blessed Assurance”
f. “Make Me a Blessing”
g. “Have Thine Own Way, Lord”
h. “Saved, Saved!”
i. “More Like the Master”
j. “I Need Jesus”
1. A Choir Director’s Handbook. Compiled by Andrea Wells Miller. Published by Word, Inc.
2. Choral Conducting by Davison. Published by Harvard University Press.
3. Chorus Conducting from Organization to Performance by Krone. Published by Kjos Co.
4. Church Music for the Glory of God by Urang. Published by the Christian Service Foundation, Moline, Illinois.
5. Essentials in Conducting by Gehrkens. Published by Presser Co.
6. How to Build an Evangelistic Church Music Program by Terry. Published by Thomas Nelson. The Ministry of Music in the Church by Vic Delamont. Published by Moody Press.
THE ABOVE MATERIAL WAS PURLISHED BY KREGER PUBLICATIONS, 1961, 34-59. THIS MATERIAL IS COPYRIGHTED AND MAY BE USED FOR STUDY & RESEARCH PURPOSES ONLY.