The Names of Jehovah God Comprehend In Jesus
Divine Names and Titles
I. ELOHIM occurs 2,700 times in the Old Testament. Its first occurrence connects it with creation and gives it its essential meaning as the Creator. It shows forth His relation to mankind as His creatures. Notice II Chron. 18:31, where Elohim (God) is contrasted with His name Jehovah; to Jehosaphat. He was JEHOVAH, his Covenant God, while to the Syrians He stood only in the relation of Creator (Elohim) to His creatures, because He had made no covenant with them as a nation at any time. Elohim is God, the living God, the power of creation. (John 1:1-3; Col. 1:15-17; Rev. 3:4-11). He first assumes a creature form, though spiritual in nature (Gen. 12:7; 32:24-30; Isa. 6:1,5) afterwards, the human form for the purpose of redeeming mankind. (John 1:14; Heb. 2:9, 14, 16, 17; Phil. 2:7; Rom. 8:3). That Elohim, in His creature form spiritually, who appeared to the Patriarchs and Prophets is the same who appeared in a human form 1 ,900 years ago to Israel can be clearly seen by reading the following scriptures: Gen. 17: 13; Ex. 6:2,3 with John 8:56-58; Isa. 6: 1,2,5,9,10, with John 12:39,40, 41, 44, 45.
II. JEHOVAH. While Elohim is God as the Creator of all things Jehovah is the same God in covenant relation to those whom he has created. Jehovah means the Eternal, the Immutable One. He who WAS, and IS, IS TO COME. The Divine definition is given in Gen. 21-33, where Abraham called on the name of JEHOVAH, the everlasting God. He is especially, therefore, the God of those who are redeemed and are thus now “in Christ.” Like Thomas, we can truly say, “My Lord and my God.”
Jehovah is indicated (in A.V.) by small capital letters, “Lord”; and “God” when it occurs in combination with Adonai, in which case Lord God-Adonai Jehovah.
The name Jehovah is combined with ten other words which form what are known as “the Jehovah Titles.”
They are as follows in the order in which they occur in the Hebrew Canon:
1. Jehovah-Jireh-Jehovah will see, or Provide. (Gen. 22:14).
2. Jehovah-Ropheka-Jehovah that healeth thee. (Ex. 15:26).
3. Jehovah-Nissi-Jehovah my banner. (Ex. 17:15).
4. Jehovah-Mekaddishkem-Jehovah that doth sanctify you. (Ex. 3:13).
5. Jehovah-Shalom-Jehovah (send) peace (Judge 6:24).
6. Jehovah-Zebaoth-Jehovah of host. (I Sam. 1-3, and frequently).
7. Jehovah-Zidkenu-Jehovah our righteousness. (Jer. 23:6).
8. Jehovah-Shammah-Jehovah is there. (Ezek. 48:35).
9. Jehovah-‘Eylon-Jehovah most high. (Psa. 7:17).
10. Jehovah-Roi-Jehovah my shepherd. (Psa. 23:1).
III. Jah is Jehovah in a special sense and relation. Jehovah as having BECOME our Salvation. The word JAH occurs forty-nine times in the original Hebrew version of the Old Testament, but is translated “Lord” in every place but one (Psa. 68:4). Its first occurrence in the original is in Ex. 15:2, He Who Is, and WAS, and IS TO COME.
IV. EL is essentially THE ALMIGHTY, though the word is never so rendered. El is Elohim in all His strength and power. It is rendered or translated “Gid” as Elohim is, but EL is God the Omnipotent. ELOHIM is God the CREATOR putting His omnipotence into operation. It is sometimes transliterated in the proper names, Imanu-EL, Beth-EL, etc., where it is translated as explained in the margin.
V. ELOAH is Elohim who is to be worshipped, Eloah is God in connection with His WILL rather than His power. The first occurrence associates this name with worship. (Deut. 32:15,17). Hence it is the title used whenever the contrast (latent or expressed) is with false gods or idols. Eloah is essentially “the living God” in contrast to inanimated idols.
VI. ELYON first occurs in Gen. 14:18 with EL, and is rendered “the most high” (God). It is EL and Elohim, not as the powerful Creator, but as “the possessor of heaven and earth.” Hence the name is associated with Christ as the Son of “the Highest.” (Luke 1:32; Matt. 28:18). It is ELYON as possessor of the earth, Who divides the nations “their inheritance.” In Psa. 82:18, He is “over all the earth.” The title occurs thirty-six times in the Old Testament, but translated “God.” ELYON is the dispenser of God’s blessings in the earth; the blessings proceeding from a Priest Who is King upon His throne (compare Gen. 14:18-22 with Zech. 6:13; 14:9). Melchizedek abideth a priest forever: without beginning of life or ending of days. Now Christ also abideth a Priest forever. A priest is a mediator between God and man, Melchizedek and Christ are both said to abide a priest forever, and there is but one Mediator between God and man! Who is Melchizedek? (Heb. 7:1,2,3,8,15,16, 17, 24, 25; I Tim. 2:5).
VII. SHADDAI is in every instance translated “Almighty,” and is indicated by small capital letter (ALMIGHTY). It is God (EL), not as a source of strength, but of GRACE; NOT AS CREATOR, but as Giver. Shaddai is the All-bountiful. This title does not refer to His CREATIVE power, but to His power to SUPPLY all the needs of His people. Its first occurrence is in Gen. 17:1, and is used to show Abraham that He who called him out to walk alone before Him could SUPPLY all his needs. Even so it is in II Cor. 6:18 where we are called to “come out” in separation from the world. It is always used in connection with EL (God).
VIII. ADON is one of three titles. (ADON, ADONAL and ADONIM) all generally translated “Lord;” but each has its own peculiar usage and association. They all denote HEADSHIP in various aspects. They have to do with God as “overlord.”
(1) ADON is the Lord as Ruler in the earth. It is always translated “Lord” in the authorized version of the Bible, and printed in small letters.
(2) ADONI is the Lord in His high relation of the earth; and as carrying out His purposes of blessing in the earth. In this respect it is always equivalent to Jehovah. Indeed, it was from an early date so used, by associating the vowel points of the word JEHOVAH with ADON, thus converting ADON into ADONI.
(3) ADONIM is the plural of ADON and never used of man. ADONIM carries with it all that ADON does, but in a greater and higher degree; and more especially as OWNER and PROPRIETOR. An ADON may rule others who do not belong to him. Hence (without the article) it is often used of men. But ADONIM is the Lord Who RULES His own.
Now having given the names and titles of the great God of Heaven in their original terms, and the purpose and meanings of the use of each separately, which one of these do we find not incorporated in the Name of JESUS? The Psalmist declared, “Thou hast magnified thy WORD above all Thy name.” In the beginning was the WORD and the WORD was with God, and WORD was God. And the WORD became flesh.” His Name shall be called JESUS. And He has been given a name that is above every name, both in Heaven and in earth. (See Psa. 138:2; John 1:1-14; Isa. 9:6; Matt. 1:21-23; Eph. 1:21-23; Phil. 2:9).
Thus were the names of Israel’s God known in the days of old. Every one of them signifying a different relationship of the great Divine to mankind. Whenever He was approached carefulness was needed, lest haply they would “take the name of the Lord in vain.” Whenever the name of the Lord was even written, the person doing so was obliged to wash himself clean, and put on a clean linen garment, and be free from every defilement. “Whosoever named the name of the Lord” had to “depart from iniquity.”
To keep all these names and titles in memory and to pronounce them correctly was undoubtedly a very, very difficult task. Just think what a proposition it would be for a man to call all those titles in an effort to comprehend the fullness of the divine attributes! All these things were hard, but God has provided some better things for us.
It was the purpose of God to make Himself known to His people from the beginning. His name was to be declared among the brethren. The secret of all ages was to be afterwards revealed. In Psalms of David it is declared, “Thou hast magnified Thy word above all Thy name.” (Psa. 138:2.)
When Jacob wrestled with the Angel he sought to obtain the secret name, but was prohibited. The Angel in the burning bush was hearing the secret name, and when Moses sought to obtain the secret name, all he received was “I am that I AM.” The Children of Israel were led by the angel of the Lord and Jehovah said, “Beware of him….for My name is in him.” (Ex. 23:21.) To Manoah the Jehovah Angel replied, “Why asketh thou after my NAME, seeing it is secret (margin, Wonderful)?” (Judges 13:18.) The prophet Isaiah declared that His NAME shall be called WONDERFUL. (Isa. 9:6.) From these scriptures it can be clearly seen that Jehovah had a name to be revealed which was to be “above all His names.”
There is not a shadow of a doubt but that the Angel that appeared to the Virgin in Nazareth was the Jehovah Angel of old who bore that “wonderful” name. It was there that He had finished His journey over the hills of time and deposited that secret name in the bosom of her who was “highly favoured of God.” Mary pondered these things in her heart and told no one the message of the Angel that she should bring forth a son and that his name should be called JESUS.
The Word was God from the beginning (John 1:1-4) and when the Word became flesh, it was given a name that “is above every name,” for He there and then “magnified His Word” above all His name. His name shall be called JESUS. What a wonderful word! All the titles that Jehovah ever bore are comprehended in this one name JESUS. The name of Jesus bears in it all the God’s other name ever bore. Jesus is Elohim, the creator (Col. 1:16), Jehovah and Shaddai (Rev. 1:8), Eloah (Heb. 1:6), Elyon, the Most High (John 3:31; Eph. 4:6), in fact, all the attributes of God as are revealed by His names are all found in Jesus. Thus in all things He is given pre-eminence, and a name that is above every name. On the Isle of Patmos He declares that He is the Lord which is, which was, and which is to come, the ALMIGHTY, *** the First and the Last. If He who appeared on the Isle of Patmos is the ALMIGHTY (Shaddai) (Rev. 1:8; Ex. 6:3), then the Almighty’s new name is JESUS, and He has magnified His Word above all His name. (John 1:1-14; Rev. 3:12.)
THE ONE SPIRIT
That there is but one Holy, Eternal Spirit of God, the Father, and Christ is clearly set forth in the word of God. Our traditional theology has gotten this truth badly confused. In a close searching of the word we will see that the apostles were in nowise divided over this matter, but all recognized that the Spirit of the Father, the Spirit, and the Holy Spirit, and the Spirt of His Son, were different expressions of the one and selfsame Spirit.
A man in Chicago is reported to have said that he could tell when the Spirt of the Father spoke through him, and when the Son spake, and when the Holy Spirit spake. This is very erroneous. Let us look at the Scriptures. Jesus said: “For I have not spoken of myself; but the Father which sent Me, He gave Me a commandment, what I should say, and what I should speak therefore, even as the Father said unto Me, so I speak.” (John 12:49, 50) Again; “I speak not of Myself but the Father that dwelleth in Me” “And the word which ye hear is not Mine, but the Father which sent Me.” (John 14:10,24). Here we see that the words spoken by Jesus were spoken by the Spirit of the Father “that dwelleth in Him.” This evidently identifies the Spirit of the Father, and Spirit of the Son to be the Self-same Spirit.
THE SPIRIT OF THE FATHER
In Matt. 10:18-20, Jesus tells the disciples that they shall be brought before governors and kings for His sake, but when they were delivered up take no thought as to how or what they should speak, for it would be given them at the same hour what they should speak. “For,” he said, “it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your FATHER which speaketh in you.” Now, this did not take place until after the Holy Ghost had fallen on the day of Pentecost for they were not delivered up to “governors and kings for His sake” until after that time. In Acts, 4th chapter, when the first persecution set in, we find Peter “filled with the Holy Ghost,” speaking the words of God with boldness (verses 8 and 31). In Acts 6:5 and 10, we find Stephen full of the Holy Ghost, so much so, that the enemy was “not able to resist the wisdom and the Spirit by which he spake.” This proves conclusively that the “Spirit spake.” This proves conclusively that the “Spirit of the FATHER” spoken by Jesus is none other than the Holy Ghost.
It has been said by some that where the word SPIRIT is used without the attribure “Holy,” it referred to God, and not the Holy Ghost. Let the WORD judge in this case also. In Matthew 3:16, the writer says: “The Spirit of GOD” descended like a dove upon Jesus. St. Luke, in recording the same incident, says: “The Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove.” (Luke 3:22.) St. John in relating the phenomena says: “John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending***like a dove.” (John 1:32; Mark 1:10.) Here we have three different writers (inspired writers) in recording the same miracle using three different terms for the self-same Spirit. This should be evidence enough, but we will go farther.
The “distinction” between the Spirit of Christ,the Spirit of God, and the Holy Ghost can be readily dissolved by the word of God, for His word is “like a fire.” (Jer. 23:29.) That the Spirit of God and the Holy Ghost are the same Spirit can be proven by reading Matt. 3:16 and Luke 3:22. But to convince one that the Holy Ghost and the Spirit of Christ are the same One Spirit, we need only to take the words of the Apostle Peter, who declares that the “Spirit of Christ” testified through the prophets in one place, and that they spake as they were moved by the “Holy Ghost” in another. (See I Peter 1:10, 11; II Peter 1:21.) We conclude that “two things equal to the same thing are equal to each other.” “There is one Spirit,” and “The Lord is that Spirit;” there is but “one Lord” and the Lord, He is God. (Eph. 4:4,5; II Cor. 3:7; Psa. 100:3).
THE SEVEN SPIRITS OF GOD
It has been asked by many what is meant by the “seven Spirits of God” if there is but one Spirit. This expression is found in Rev. 4:5 and 5:6. In one place it says the seven lamps are the “seven Spirits of God,” and in the other place it says the seven eyes of the Lamb are the “seven Spirits of God.” The seven lamps are evidently the illuminations of the Holy Spirit throughout the churches, that is, throughout the church age. The fourth and fifth chapters of Revelation are visions of the preparation for judgment. But the judgment will be rendered to the people according to the “illumination of the Spirit” in the dispensation in which they lived. Seven lamps-seven Spirits- “The Holy Ghost in His sevenfold operation as the light-and-life Giver.” This is the explanation of Jameson, Faussett and Brown, commentators, but I believe the former is the true interpretation of the mystery. However, it is the One and self-same Spirit.
JESUS IS BOTH
In Rev. 22:6, it declares that the “Lord God of the holy prophets sent His angel to show unto His servants things which must shortly be done,” but in the 16th verse JESUS says in plain words, that cannot be misunderstood: “I JESUS have sent Mine angel to testify unto these things in the churches.” This sets forth clearly that Jesus Christ is BOTH.
That Jesus Christ is BOTH the God of Abraham, and the promised SEED of Abraham, may be seen from the following scriptures: In Gal. 3:16 we find that Christ is the seed of Abraham; but in comparing Rev. 1:8, where Jesus declares Himself to be the Almighty with Ex. 6:2,3, where God declares that Abraham knew Him, not by His Name JEHOVAH, but by the name of God ALMIGHTY; then compare this with John 8:56-58, we have conclusive evidence that Jesus Christ is BOTH.
In the fourth chapter of Revelation we read of “One sitting on the throne,” and that the four beasts and the four and twenty elders fall down before” Him that sat on the throne,” and cast down their crowns, saying, “Thou art worthy, 0 Lord, to receive glory, and honor, and power, for thou hast created all things and for Thy pleasure they are and were created.” That this refers to Jesus Christ, in His glory, everyone will admit (Col. 1:16), but in the fifth chapter of Revelation we find a “Lamb, as it had been slain,” which cometh forth and takes the Book out of the right hand of “Him that sat upon the throne.” That this Lamb is Jesus none will attempt to deny. Then combining the record in the 22nd chapter of Revelation, we find that the Throne of God and the Lamb is one throne, and it further declares that “His servants shall SERVE HIM (not `them’), and they shall see HIS face” (not “their” faces); and “HIS Name shall be in their foreheads,” (not “their” names). From this it can be clearly seen that Jesus Christ is BOTH the Lord God and the Lamb.
THE MYSTERY OF THE REVELATION
The Mystery of Revelations is liken unto the blossoming of a rose. While a rose is confined in the bud, every petal is perfect; but though we try ever so earnestly to pick it open before its time, we are forced to admit that all of our efforts are in vain. And the final result is that the petals are torn and the rose as a whole is marred beyond recognition.
But if we leave it until its appointed time it will gently unfold itself in all its beauty, every petal in its place and the air will be filled with its fragrance. Often times a rosebud may be clipped from the bush before it is fully developed. The only way for it to be properly unfolded is to place it in a glass of water, then it will unfold itself.
Thus it is with the Mystery of the Godhead. It has been folded away in God’s infinite wisdom, awaiting the day appointed, when “in the dispensation of the fulness of times” all things were to be gathered in Christ, both which are in heaven and in earth. (Eph. 1:10). Men have endeavored to solve this mystery centuries ago, but the more they “picked” at it, the more obscure and mysterious it became; so they were compelled to cease from any further intrusion, shake their heads and utter with a gasp of dismay, “Things too wonderful for me; it is a MYSTERY.”
Now that the “fulness of times” has come, the hidden mystery is now being revealed in Christ. The Rose of Sharon has gently unfolded, and we are beginning to see the “King in His Beauty.” What a fragrance fills the air! JESUS, JESUS, BLESSED JESUS! The Mystery of the FATHER, SON and HOLY GHOST is fully comprehended in Christ Jesus. As Father, He was the Creator,Begetter of all things. (John 1:1-3; Col. 1:16-18.) As Son, He was our example in the days of His flesh, from His baptism in the Jordan up to His ascension on the resurrection morning. (Matt. 3:15-17; John 20:17.) As Holy Ghost He comes within and abides forever.(John 14:16-18; Matt. 28:18-20.)
(The Life of G.T. Haywood, from Apostolic Book Publishers, P.D. Dugas, Editor)
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