By Albert Friend
The Journey into Egypt
The journey into Egypt was long. During this travel time Joseph learned how to govern his thoughts. He had fallen from being the favorite son of a rich man to being a slave to strangers. That’s quite a drop. He understood that he had to get the strangeness out of his belief system by bravely trusting God. To think it not strange he had to cast down his own imagination that was exalting itself against his knowledge of God. He brought this strange fear into captivity and trusted in God.
He knew the strength of his believing lay in where his faith was anchored. On his journey to Egypt Joseph went through an inward transformation. If you do not challenge the Devil’s lie it becomes an established fact in your mind. Joseph established in his own mind that he was not a slave but a free man ready to go when the time came.
He accepted his trials as being the will of God for his life. This attitude would give him favor with whomever he was to be assigned.
Joseph arrives in Egypt
By the time Joseph arrived in Egypt he was ready for his new life. He did not resist it but welcomed it as God’s will for him. He was a slave and did not know who his owner would he. Slaves were a commodity in those days and owners wanted the best for their money. The rich owners wanted excellent slaves. A seventeen year old healthy farm boy would bring a good price from a rich owner.
Joseph was put on the slave auction block. The bidding kept going up until a wealthy bidder named Potipher won the bid. He was a member of the personal staff of Pharaoh, king of Egypt. He was the captain of the king’s bodyguard. He was also the king’s chief executioner. What Potiphar paid for Joseph is not recorded but you can be sure it was more than twenty pieces of silver.
Joseph’s transformation of the renewing of his mind in his desert journey to Egypt paid off immediately. He was the son of a rich man and was familiar with those surroundings so he fit into Potipher’s stride easily. The many affairs of a rich man were a part of Joseph’s duties back home so it was easy to anticipate what Potipher wanted next and how he wanted it performed. Joseph quickly found favor in his master’s eyes. Joseph gave him what he wanted. This is also the key to pleasing God. Give God what He wants.
Joseph’s attitude and abilities were recognized by Potipher as being sincere and loyal to him. All his household affairs started to run smoothly, his crops flourished and his flocks multiplied. Potiphar noticed this and realized that the Lord was with Joseph in a special way. His trust in Joseph grew quickly. He was ready to show trust to this handsome Hebrew boy.
Soon Joseph was put in charge of the administration of Potiphar’s household and all his business affairs. Potipher trusted in Joseph and did not have to worry about anything that Joseph was overseeing. All he had to decide was what he wanted to eat.
The wife of Potipher, the captain of the king’s bodyguard, was not loyal to their marriage vows. One day she started to flirt with Joseph suggesting that he come and have sex with her. Joseph flatly refused. “No”, he told her in an absolute way. Your husband trusts me with everything in his entire household. He has given me as much authority as he has. He has held back nothing from me except you yourself, because you are his wife. I will not do such a wicked thing as this. It would be a great sin against your husband and God.”
Potipher’s wife would not quit. She kept on with her suggestions day after day even though Joseph refused to listen. He kept out of her way as much as possible. Then one day as he was in the house going about his work, it happened. With no one around at the time, she came and grabbed him by the sleeve demanding, “Make love with me.” Immediately he pulled himself away from her as any man should. As he jerked, his jacket slipped off and she was left holding it as he fled from the house.
When she saw that he had fled and she was left holding his jacket she started screaming. When the other men around the place came running in to see what was happening she started crying hysterically. “My husband has brought in this Hebrew slave to belittle us,” she sobbed. “He tried to rape me and when I screamed he ran and left his jacket behind.”
This unfaithful woman kept the jacket. When her husband came home that night she told him her fake story. “That Hebrew slave you’ve had around here tried to rape me and I was only saved by my screams. He fled leaving his jacket behind.” When Potipher heard his wife’s story he was
furious. He threw Joseph into prison where the king’s prisoners were kept in chains.
Gen. 39:21-23 & 40:1-4
Once in prison, they bruised his feet with fetters and placed his neck in an iron collar. Until the time came to fulfill his word, the LORD tested Joseph’s character. Psalms 105:1819. NLT
Going to prison did not separate God and Joseph. God is never absent. The Lord was with Joseph in prison. Joseph and God were inseparable.
God was kind to Joseph everywhere he went and granted him favor with the chief jailer. The jailer trusted Joseph with the entire prison administration. This made all the other prisoners responsible to him. And so Joseph had a God and God had a Leader that made the best of every situation into which he was thrust. Also the chief jailer had no more worries after that for Joseph took care of everything. The Lord was with Joseph so that everything ran quite smoothly.
Later there came a time when the king of Egypt became angry with his chief baker and his chief butler. Pharaoh jailed them both in the prison where Joseph was spending time. This jail was in the castle of Potiphar, the captain of the guard who was also the chief executioner. They remained under arrest for quite some time. Potiphar appointed Joseph to wait on them.
28 years old
It just so happened that in prison, on the same night, the chief butler and the chief baker had a dream. The next morning Joseph noticed that they looked unhappy. Joseph questioned them, “What is your problem?” And they replied, “Each of us has had a dream last night but there is no one here to tell us what they mean.” Joseph responded with this statement: “Interpreting dreams is God’s business. Tell me what you saw.”
The butler was eager to tell his dream first. “In my dream,” he said, “I saw a vine with three branches that started to bud and blossom and soon there were clusters of ripe grapes. I was holding Pharaoh’s wine cup in my hand so I took the grapes and squeezed the juice into it and gave it to him to drink.”
“I know what that means” Joseph said. “The three branches mean three days. Within three days Pharaoh is going to take you out of prison and give you back your job as his chief butler. And please, have some pity on me when you are back in his favor. Mention me to Pharaoh and ask him to let me out of here. I was kidnapped from my homeland among the Hebrews and now this has happened to me. Here I am in jail and I am innocent. I did nothing to deserve this.”
The chief baker got excited. When he saw that the butler’s dream had such a good meaning he told his dream to Joseph. “In my dream,” he said, “there were three baskets of pastries on my head. In the top basket were all kinds of bakery goods for Pharaoh but the birds came and ate them.”
Joseph said: “I know what this means also.” Joseph explaining chief baker’s dream told him, “The three baskets mean three days. In three days Pharaoh will take off your head and impale your body on a pole and the birds will come and pick off your flesh.” Wow. How different this dream was from the butler’s dream. Joseph didn’t ask the baker to do anything for him. The baker was not going to live to tell about it.
Pharaoh’s birthday came three days later. He held a party for all his officials and household staff. He sent for his chief butler and chief baker and they were brought to him from the prison. Pharaoh then restored the chief butler to his former position, but just as Joseph had predicted, he sentenced the chief baker to be impaled on a pole.
Pharaoh’s butler however, did not remember Joseph. He forgot. The excitement of getting out of jail was all he could think about. His promise to Joseph completely slipped from his mind. Now, Joseph was innocent, 28 years old and forgotten in prison.
Think about the title of this book and how we got here. It’s a long way down. Joseph is forgotten for 2 more years.
Pharaoh brings out Joseph
Two years is a long time to be forgotten, however God was not absent. God stayed with Joseph throughout his entire life. Don’t ever forget it. God is with you always. He will never leave you nor forsake you. Be aware of God everywhere you go.
One night, two years later, Pharaoh had a dream. In his dream Pharaoh saw himself standing on the bank of the Nile River. Suddenly seven well favored cows came up out of the river and started grazing in the grass. After this seven other cows came up from the river. They were skinny and all their ribs stood out. They walked over and stood beside the fat cows. Then the skinny cows ate the fat cows. When that happened Pharaoh woke up.
Pharaoh fell asleep again and another dream came to him. This time he saw seven heads of grain on one stalk with every kernel well formed and plump. Then suddenly seven more heads appeared on the stalk but these were shriveled and withered by the dry east wind. And these thin heads swallowed up the seven plump well formed heads. Pharaoh woke up again and realized it was all a dream.
The next morning as he contemplated on his dreams he was troubled as to what the dreams might mean.
Immediately he called for all his wise men of Egypt and told them about it, but not one of them could even suggest what his dreams meant.
Joseph is remembered
Then, suddenly, the king’s butler spoke up. “Today I remember my sin.” he said. “Do you remember when you were angry with a couple of us and put me and the chief baker in jail? You put us in the jail that is in the castle of the captain of the guard. During the time of our imprisonment, the chief baker and I each dreamed a dream one night. We told the dreams to a young Hebrew fellow who was a slave of the captain of the guard and had been put in jail. He told us what our dreams meant. And everything happened just as he said. You restored me to my position as your chief butler. The chief baker you executed and impaled him on a pole.”
Hearing this important information, Pharaoh sent for Joseph to be brought to him with haste. The ruler of the nation opened his prison door. He was taken out of the dungeon. He was allowed to shave and afterwards he was given a change of clothes. Joseph was then quickly brought into the presence of Pharaoh.
Pharaoh explained to Joseph his reason for bringing him from the prison. “I dreamed a dream last night,” Pharaoh said to him, “and not one of my wise men can even suggest to me what it means. But I have heard that you can interpret dreams and that is why I have called for you.” Joseph’s reply to Pharaoh was, “I cannot do it by myself, but, my God will tell you what it means.”
Pharaoh then told Joseph his two dreams. He said, “I was standing on the bank of the Nile River when all of a sudden seven fat healthy cows came up out of the river and started to eat along the river bank. As I was watching them seven other cows came up from the river very skinny and bony. In fact I’ve never seen such poor looking cattle in all the land of Egypt. And these seven skinny cattle ate up the seven fat ones that had come up first and afterwards they were no better, but were still as skinny as before. Then I woke up.”
“My second dream came to me a little later. This time there were seven heads of grain on one stalk and all seven heads were plump and full. Then out of the same stalk came seven heads withered and thin. The thin heads consumed the fat ones. I told all this to my wise men but not one of them could even suggest to me anything.”
Joseph interprets His dream
“I fully understand that God is showing you the same thing in both of your dreams,” Joseph told Pharaoh. “God is showing you what he is going to do here in your land of Egypt.”
“God is telling you through your dream that the seven fat cows and the seven fat well formed heads of grain mean there are seven years of abundant harvest ahead.”
“God is also telling you what the skinny cows and the seven thin and withered heads of grain represent. They mean that there will be seven years of famine following the seven years of abundant harvest.”
“Pharaoh, God has revealed to you what he is about to do. The next seven years will be a period of great prosperity throughout all the land of Egypt with an abundant harvest. Afterwards there will be seven years of famine so great that all the abundant harvest will be forgotten and wiped out and famine will consume the land. The famine will be so long and terrible that even the memory of the good years will be erased. God has given you a second dream to witness the truth He has shown you. These two dreams are two witnesses to impress you that what God has told you is certainly going to happen. God has decreed it, and it is going to happen soon.”
“My suggestion is that you find the wisest man in Egypt and put him in charge of administering a nationwide corn storage program. Let not one ear of corn be lost for the famine will be great and devastating. Let Pharaoh divide Egypt into five administrative districts, and let the officials of these districts gather into the royal storehouses all the excess crops of the next seven years. I repeat, let not one ear of corn be lost because it will be more valuable than gold or silver, or cattle or houses. You must have enough corn so there will be sufficient to eat when the seven years of famine come. Otherwise disaster will surely strike all over Egypt.”
Joseph is raised from a prisoner to Second Ruler in Egypt in one day.
Pharaoh and his assistants accepted Joseph’s suggestions as a message from God. They then discussed who should be appointed to the job. Pharaoh was quick to say, “Who could do it better than Joseph? For he is a man who is filled with the Spirit of God and understands what his God is about to do.”
Turning to Joseph Pharaoh said to him, “Because God has revealed to you the meaning of my dreams I believe you are the wisest man in this country. I am therefore appointing you to be in charge of this entire project. What you say will be law throughout all the land of Egypt and I am the only one with more authority than you.”
Pharaoh turned and placed his own signet ring on Joseph’s finger as a token of his authority. He said to his assistants, “Put these garments on him because I want him to be dressed in the finest clothing. I want all Egypt to respect him.” Then Pharaoh placed the royal gold chain about his neck and declared, “Let all that are here take notice. I have placed Joseph in control of all the land of Egypt.”
Joseph was put in charge of the entire king’s household. He became ruler over all the king’s possessions. He could instruct the king’s aides as he pleased and teach the king’s advisers.
Pharaoh then gave Joseph the chariot of his second in command and wherever he went the shout was given, “Bow down.”
Pharaoh declared to Joseph, “I, the king of Egypt, swear that you will have complete control over all the land of Egypt.” Pharaoh then gave him a new name, Zaphnath-paaneah, meaning “He has the godlike power to sustain life.” And he gave him a wife, a girl named Asenath, daughter of Potiphera, priest of Heliopolis. So Joseph became famous throughout the land of Egypt.
Now think about this. Joseph was 28 years old, innocent and forgotten in prison. Then after two years it all changed in one day’s time. In the morning Joseph awakened as a thirty year old innocent and forgotten prison inmate. That night he went to bed as a thirty year old second ruler in Egypt. Wow! Think about that. Think about what God did for Joseph. Don’t be so fast. Don’t turn the page and continue to read. Stop and meditate on what you just read. Think about what God will do for you if you just trust Him. Give God what He wants. Take a moment and pray. Ask God to be with you as He was with Joseph.
Joseph prepares for the famine
Seven good years
Joseph went out from Pharaoh’s palace and started traveling throughout the land. Just as God had revealed in Pharaoh’s dream, sure enough, for the next seven years there was an abundant harvest everywhere. The starting of the prophecy was coming to pass on time.
During those years Joseph requisitioned for the government a part of all the crops grown throughout Egypt storing them in nearby cities. After seven years of this the granaries were full to overflowing, and there was so much that no one kept track of the total amount. The rule was nothing was to be left behind. Keep it all. We will need it.
A wonderful thing happened to Joseph during this time before the arrival of the first of the famine years. Two sons were born to Joseph and his wife Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera, priest of the sun god Re of Heliopolis. Joseph named his oldest son Manasseh which means, “God caused me to forget.” What he meant was that God, with the birth of a son of his own, had rewarded to him for all the anguish of his youth and for the loss of his living in his father’s home. He now had children of his own.
When I was a young boy living in my father’s home I can remember a statement of my father. We were all playing in the house and were happy with my dad looking on. He said, “You enjoy your brothers and sisters but when you get older and have children of your own you will enjoy them even more.
There is nothing like rearing a son of your own. Joseph and Asenath soon had another son. Joseph named his second boy Ephraim. The name Ephraim means fruitful. Joseph said it this way, “For God has made me fruitful in this land of my slavery.”
Wealth belongs to the man who sees it.
The story of Joseph is also a story about money. Joseph was an investor. He learned it from his father Jacob who had wealth. And wealth is everyone’s birthright.
The person who sees it has the power to get wealth. This is true worldwide. It all starts with an idea, a dream. Wealth is a different meaning to each of us.
Wealth is measured in numbers. To create wealth you must know your numbers. It is a mathematical dream of sowing and reaping. Sowing and reaping will work as long as the earth remaineth.
Joseph employed his power to get wealth using Potipher’s assets. He caused Potipher to be a richer man. Joseph used this same power to run the prison when he was in jail. The jailer had it easier because of Joseph.
Joseph’s work record, his resume, allowed him to advise Pharaoh on how to handle the famine. Notice: God revealed to Joseph the dream. Joseph’s god-given power to get wealth helped him figured how to get ready for the famine. They did not have the luxury of squandering the seven good years. When there is plenty waste is easy.
Joseph knew his numbers. There could be no waste during the seven good years. The numbers would not allow it. Every ear of corn above what was needed had to be saved.
Egypt was large. The math of it all was enormous. Everything had to be organized and in place. The accounting books had to be filled in. The barns had to be full. Districts had to be set up with a system that would work and help starving people.
They could not afford to have grain lost in a barn and no one know it was there. It would be a sin for people to starve to death when a barn was full that could feed them. Joseph was a faithful steward. When the famine hit he was ready.
Seven years of famine
Then it happened. Just like God had revealed to Pharaoh in his dream. God’s word was proving true on time. The last seven years of plenty came to an end. At this time the seven years of famine started and Joseph was ready for it. Joseph had preformed well. He has laid up corn in abundance.
Joseph was comfortable when the famine hit. Now he would distribute the corn according to its true value. Joseph knew the value of corn in times of famine. Corn is worth more than gold when you are hungry and about to die.
There were crop failures in all the surrounding countries but in Egypt there was plenty of grain in the storehouses. The people began to starve. They pleaded with Pharaoh for food and he sent them to Joseph. “Do whatever he tells you to do,” he instructed them.
That part of the world was in a grave condition. There was a severe famine all over that whole area. Joseph, confident in his belief in God, opened up the storehouses and sold grain to the Egyptians. He also opened up the storehouses to those from other lands, to whoever came to Egypt to buy grain from him. When Joseph opened his heart and storehouses to the people of other lands he did not realize the reward God had in store for him.
Jacob heard there was corn in Egypt
Now our story starts to unfold. Joseph is thirty seven years old. He was seventeen years old when his brothers sold him into slavery. Twenty years have passed. At this time Joseph is the second ruler in Egypt but his brothers do not know it. Joseph is the one Pharaoh is sending all the hungry to so that they would be able to buy corn.
When the famine hit Joseph’s brothers were caught in it but Joseph did not know it. Joseph had been twenty years away from his family. He had a wife and kids of his own and was happy doing the work of God. God had it in mind for Joseph to be reunited with his father Jacob and his brothers. Joseph would get to see his father and Benjamin, his younger real brother, again.
It was because Joseph opened his heart to those from other lands that Jacob heard there was corn available in Egypt. He was excited and said to his sons, “I have heard that corn is obtainable in Egypt. Go down and buy some for us before we all starve to death.”
Jacob gave Joseph’s ten older brothers all they needed for the journey and they went down to Egypt to buy grain. But Jacob wouldn’t let Joseph’s younger brother Benjamin go with them for fear some harm would happen to him. He remembered what happened to his brother Joseph and did not want the same horrible grief.
The journey was successful and without incident. Israel’s sons arrived in Egypt to buy food along with others from many lands. The famine was as severe in Canaan as it was elsewhere.
At this time in His plan God is about to bring together in one place the sons of Jacob. They didn’t go just anywhere in Egypt to buy corn. Joseph was governor of all Egypt and in charge of the sale of the corn. Pharaoh set it up that everyone had to go to Joseph to be checked and cleared as a qualified buyer of corn. This forced Joseph’s brothers to come directly in contact with him to purchase corn. It was to Joseph that his brothers came and bowed low before him with their faces to the earth.
Joseph recognized his brothers
Joseph recognized his brothers instantly, but pretended he did not know them. His first thoughts were about the last time he saw them. There was anguish in his soul hard to be forgotten. Joseph held back these bad feelings while he got hold of himself. As they remained bowed low before him he asked, “From where have you come?” “From the land of Canaan,” they replied. “We have come to buy corn.”
Then something happened. As the butler remembered Joseph after two years of being out of prison, so Joseph remembered the dreams of twenty years ago. God softened his heart toward his brothers by showing him that what was happening was God’s will for him and his brothers. He let God lead him because in his two dreams his father was involved. He wanted to see his father again.
He said to them, “You are spies. You have come to see how destitute the famine has affected our land.” “No, no,” they exclaimed. “We have come to buy food. We are all brothers and honest men, sir! We are not spies.”
“Yes, you are,” he insisted. “You have come to see how weak we are.”
“Sir,” they said, “there are twelve of us brothers, and our father is in the land of Canaan. Our youngest brother is there with our father, and one of our brothers is no more.”
“So what?” Joseph asked. “What does that mean? You are spies. Here is how I will check your story. I swear by the life of Pharaoh that you are not going to leave Egypt until this youngest brother comes here. One of you may go and get your younger brother. The rest of you I will keep here bound in prison. Then we’ll find out whether your story is true or not. If it turns out that you do not have a younger brother, then I will know you are spies.”
Joseph put them in prison
Joseph threw them all into jail for three days. This gave him time to think God into the picture. After all Joseph was not dealing with revenge but with a dream God had given him when he was seventeen years old. He liked the way things were developing. He was going to be able to save his father’s household and all things in it. That was exciting to him but he had to stay ahead of his brothers lest they mess up God’s Plan.
The third day Joseph said to them, “I am a God fearing man and I’m going to give you an opportunity to prove yourselves. I am going to take a chance that you are honorable. Only one of you will remain in chains in jail and the rest of you may go on home with grain for your families. But you must bring your youngest brother back to me. In this way I will know whether you are telling me the truth. And if you are, I will spare you.” They quickly agreed to this.
Joseph was about to hear words he did not hear when they betrayed him
Joseph was in the well when his brothers did their planning and could not hear what they planned. Now he is hearing what they said twenty years ago.
Speaking among themselves they said, “This has all happened because of what we did to Joseph long ago. We saw his terror and anguish and heard his pleadings, but we wouldn’t listen.” “Didn’t I tell you not to do it?” Reuben asked. “But you wouldn’t listen. And we are going to die because we murdered him.”
They didn’t know that Joseph understood them as he was standing there for he had been speaking to them through an interpreter. Joseph saw and heard his brothers openly repent for treating him so harshly. His love for them stirred up his emotions. He left the room and found a place where he could cry. After regaining his composure he returned and continued his plan. He selected Simeon from among them and had him bound before their eyes.
God allowed them to feel the terror they inflicted on Joseph.
Joseph then ordered his servants to fill the men’s sacks with grain but also gave secret instructions to put each brother’s payment at the top of his sack. He also gave them provisions for their journey. So they loaded up their donkeys with the grain and started for home. When they stopped for the night and one of them opened his sack to get some grain to feed the donkeys there was his money in the mouth of the sack. “Look,” he exclaimed to his brothers, “my money is here in my sack.” They were filled with terror. Trembling, they exclaimed to each other. “What is this that God has done to us?”
This looks to me like a God “pay back”. Twenty years ago Joseph was on his journey from Canaan to Egypt in fear and anguish for his future and now his brothers are going to go on their journey back from Egypt to Canaan in fear and anguish for their future.
The journey home finally ended. The brothers came to their father, Jacob, in the land of Canaan and told him all that had happened. “The king’s chief assistant spoke harshly to us,” they told him, “and took us for spies.” “No, no,” we said, “we are honest men not spies. We are twelve brothers, sons of one father. One is dead and the youngest is with our father in the land of Canaan.” Then the man said, “Here is how I will find out if you are who you say you are. Allow one of your brothers to stay here with me and take the grain for your families so they will have food to eat. When you have done this bring your youngest brother back to me. Then will I know whether you are spies or honest men. If you are what you say, then I will give you back your brother and you may come as often as you like to purchase grain.”
Then they emptied out the sacks. To their amazement there at the top of each bag was the money they had given for the grain. Fear gripped their heart again as it also did Jacob their father. Then Jacob exclaimed, “You have taken from me of my children. Joseph did not come back, Simeon is gone, and now you want to take Benjamin too. All things have been against me.”
Then Reuben said to his father, “Kill my two sons if I don’t bring Benjamin back to you. I’ll be responsible for him.” But Jacob replied, “NO! My son will not go down with you. His brother Joseph is dead and he alone is left of his mother’s children. If anything should happen to him, I would die.”
The Famine continues
Time continued on but there was no relief from the terrible famine throughout the land. The grain the brothers had brought from Egypt was almost gone. Jacob said to them, “Go again into Egypt and buy us more food.” Judah said, “This man was serious when he said, ‘Don’t ever come back again unless your brother is with you.’ We cannot go unless you let Benjamin go with us.”
“Why did you even tell him you had another brother?” Jacob moaned. “Why did you treat me like that?”
“We had no choice. The man specifically asked us about our family. He asked whether our father was still living and then he asked us if we had another brother. So we told him. We had no way of knowing that he was going to say, “Bring me your brother.” Then Judah said to his father,
“Send the lad with me and we will be on our way. If you don’t we will all die of starvation and not only we, but you and all our little ones. I guarantee his safety. If I don’t bring him back to you, then let me bear the blame forever. If you had consented earlier to let him go with us we could have been there and back by this time.”
So their father Jacob finally said to them, “If it cannot be avoided then at least do this. Load your donkeys with our best products of the land. Take them to the man as gifts; balm, honey, spices, myrrh, pistachio nuts, and almonds. Take twice money so that you can pay back what was in the top of your bags. It was probably someone’s mistake. Then take your brother and go. May God Almighty give you mercy before the man, so that he will release Simeon and return Benjamin. And if I must bear the anguish of their deaths, then so be it.” Jacob and his sons had no way of knowing this hard decision was a turning point in their lives. This journey into Egypt would be their hardest.
The above article, “Lessons From the Life of Joseph” is written by Albert Friend. The article was excerpted from the fourth, fifth, and sixth chapters of Friend’s book, Innocent 28 Years Old Forgotten in Prison – The Story of Joseph in the Land of Pharaoh.
The material is copyrighted and should not be reprinted under any other name or author. However, this material may be freely used for personal study or research purposes.